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  • StatePlans
    to be accomplished through Federal technical and financial assistance to States or regional authorities for comprehensive planning pursuant to Federal guidelines designed to foster cooperation among Federal State and local governments and private industry In developing such comprehensive plans it is the intention of this chapter that in determining the size of the waste to energy facility adequate provision shall be given to the present and reasonably anticipated future needs including those needs created by thorough implementation of section 6962 h of this title of the recycling and resource recovery interest within the area encompassed by the planning process Sec 6942 Federal guidelines for plans a Guidelines for identification of regions For purposes of encouraging and facilitating the development of regional planning for solid waste management the Administrator within one hundred and eighty days after October 21 1976 and after consultation with appropriate Federal State and local authorities shall by regulation publish guidelines for the identification of those areas which have common solid waste management problems and are appropriate units for planning regional solid waste management services Such guidelines shall consider 1 the size and location of areas which should be included 2 the volume of solid waste which should be included and 3 the available means of coordinating regional planning with other related regional planning and for coordination of such regional planning into the State plan b Guidelines for State plans Not later than eighteen months after October 21 1976 and after notice and hearing the Administrator shall after consultation with appropriate Federal State and local authorities promulgate regulations containing guidelines to assist in the development and implementation of State solid waste management plans hereinafter in this chapter referred to as State plans The guidelines shall contain methods for achieving the objectives specified in section 6941of this title Such guidelines shall be reviewed from time to time but not less frequently than every three years and revised as may be appropriate c Considerations for State plan guidelines The guidelines promulgated under subsection b of this section shall consider 1 the varying regional geologic hydrologic climatic and other circumstances under which different solid waste practices are required in order to insure the reasonable protection of the quality of the ground and surface waters from leachate contamination the reasonable protection of the quality of the surface waters from surface runoff contamination and the reasonable protection of ambient air quality 2 characteristics and conditions of collection storage processing and disposal operating methods techniques and practices and location of facilities where such operating methods techniques and practices are conducted taking into account the nature of the material to be disposed 3 methods for closing or upgrading open dumps for purposes of eliminating potential health hazards 4 population density distribution and projected growth 5 geographic geologic climatic and hydrologic characteristics 6 the type and location of transportation 7 the profile of industries 8 the constituents and generation rates of waste 9 the political economic organizational financial and management problems affecting comprehensive solid waste management 10 types of resource recovery facilities and resource conservation systems which are appropriate and 11 available new and additional markets for recovered material and energy and energy resources recovered from solid waste as well as methods for conserving such materials and energy ZWA NOTES According to EPA officials these sections were NOT promulgated under the U S Code of Federal Regulations SUBCHAPTER I 1995 1996 1997 SOLID WASTES PART 256 1995 GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Adobe PDF Sec 6946 Procedure for development and implementation of State plan a Identification of regions Within one hundred and eighty days after publication of guidelines under section 6942 a of this title relating to identification of regions the Governor of each State after consultation with local elected officials shall promulgate regulations based on such guidelines identifying the boundaries of each area within the State which as a result of urban concentrations geographic conditions markets and other factors is appropriate for carrying out regional solid waste management Such regulations may be modified from time to time identifying additional or different regions pursuant to such guidelines b Identification of State and local agencies and responsibilities 1 Within one hundred and eighty days after the Governor promulgates regulations under subsection a of this section for purposes of facilitating the development and implementation of a State plan which will meet the minimum requirements of section 6943 of this title the State together with appropriate elected officials of general purpose units of local government shall jointly A identify an agency to develop the State plan and identify one or more agencies to implement such plan and B identify which solid waste management activities will under such State plan be planned for and carried out by the State and which such management activities will under such State plan be planned for and carried out by a regional or local authority or a combination of regional or local and State authorities If a multi functional regional agency authorized by State law to conduct solid waste planning and management the members of which are appointed by the Governor is in existence on October 21 1976 the Governor shall identify such authority for purposes of carrying out within such region clause A of this paragraph Where feasible designation of the agency for the affected area designated under section 1288 of title 33 shall be considered A State agency identified under this paragraph shall be established or designated by the Governor of such State Local or regional agencies identified under this paragraph shall be composed of individuals at least a majority of whom are elected local officials 2 If planning and implementation agencies are not identified and designated or established as required under paragraph 1 for any affected area the governor shall before the date two hundred and seventy days after promulgation of regulations under subsection a of this section establish or designate a State agency to develop and implement the State plan for such area c

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  • WASTE LAW
    Edition of the U S Code plus Supplement I and the contents of the most recent edition of the Law Revision Counsel s U S Code Classification Table The U S Code Classification Table covers Public Laws 104 1 through 105 174 enacted May 1 1998 The text of recently adopted public laws is separately available through the University of California s GPO Gate Or use Update option on Cornell s navigation bar Order The U S CODE Search The U S CODE through the U S Gov t Printing Office or contact http www westgroup com 3 CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS CFRs see below are regulations written by the Executive Branch to support specific statutes in the law CRFs cannot conflict with those statutes or go beyond the purpose of the statutes If they do conflict then the U S Code prevails Search CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS CFRs Federal Register A Record of Notices and Proposed Regulations by the Executive Branch House of Representatives EPA NOTES Always check that the laws and regulations you are reviewing are current To order the print version of many of the documents listed below contact http www westgroup com all material updated annually or Gov t Printing Office 202 512 1800 The U S Code i e statutes always supersedes CRFs The Code of Federal Regulations i e regulations if there is a conflict between them More regulations are listed under the Landfill Incinerator and other ZWA pages ENVIRONMENTAL and Waste LAWS REGULATIONS U S CODE courtesy Cornell University much easier to use than House of Representatives webpage see U S Code Title 42 Public Health and Welfare Includes most environmental statutes Chapter 82 Solid Waste Disposal The Solid Waste Disposal Act 42 U S Code 6901 6992k consists of Title II of Public Law 89 272 and the amendments made by subsequent enactments This Act is popularly referred to as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act after the short title of the law that amended the Solid Waste Disposal Act in its entirely in 1976 Public Law 94 580 EPA webpage Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 42 U S C s s 6901 et seq 1976 RCRA pronounced rick rah gave EPA the authority to control hazardous waste from the cradle to grave This includes the generation transportation treatment storage and disposal of hazardous waste RCRA also set forth a framework for the management of non hazardous wastes The 1986 amendments to RCRA enabled EPA to address environmental problems that could result from underground tanks storing petroleum and other hazardous substances RCRA focuses only on active and future facilities and does not address abandoned or historical sites see CERCLA HSWA pronounced hiss wa The Federal Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments are the 1984 amendments to RCRA that required phasing out land disposal of hazardous waste Some of the other mandates of this strict law include increased enforcement authority for EPA more stringent hazardous waste management standards and a comprehensive underground storage tank

    Original URL path: http://zerowasteamerica.org/WasteLaws&Regs.htm (2016-04-25)
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  • Statistics
    a clear violation of the Solid Waste Disposal Act RCRA U S C TITLE 42 THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE CHAPTER 82 SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SUBCHAPTER IV STATE OR REGIONAL SOLID WASTE PLANS 6942 Federal guidelines for plans b Guidelines for State plans Not later than eighteen months after October 21 1976 and after notice and hearing the Administrator shall after consultation with appropriate Federal State and local authorities promulgate regulations containing guidelines to assist in the development and implementation of State solid waste management plans hereinafter in this chapter referred to as State plans The guidelines shall contain methods for achieving the objectives specified in section 6941 of this title Such guidelines shall be reviewed from time to time but not less frequently than every three years and revised as may be appropriate c Considerations for State plan guidelines The guidelines promulgated under subsection b of this section shall consider 8 the constituents and generation rates of waste COUNTING WASTE BUT WHAT IS WASTE Municipal waste is at most 20 of the reported total waste stream according to Pennsylvania s estimates However some estimates put it as low as 2 According to Peter G Miller in the files of the EPA is a 1988 Report to Congress Solid Waste Disposal in the United States On page 11 of Volume 1 a chart shows all Subtitle D municipal landfill wastes EPA reported to Congress that would be 11 38 7 billion tons Of this total less than 2 percent is represented by MSW If that chart does not include hazardous waste then the 2 figure would be even lower Municipal waste includes durable goods nondurable goods containers packaging food wastes and yardwaste However other wastes may also be disposed in municipal landfills including municipal sludge industrial non hazardous waste construction and demolition debris agricultural waste oil and gas waste mining waste and hazardous waste The Environmental Protection Agency EPA estimates the total cost of municipal waste disposal is 100 per ton Therefore the cost of municipal waste disposal in the U S could be 23 8 billion This figure does not include the associated financial costs of lost resources or the costs of landfills and incinerators on public health and the environment Also see Environmental Economics ZWA s 1998 State of the Nation s Waste Recycling The EPA does not require states to report the total amount of waste that is generated disposed recycled imported or exported in the United States even though federal law requires such reports see below A Critique of the Methodology the EPA Note ZWA has ordered the 1988 Report To Congress in order to confirm the above information The report has never been updated ZWA hopes to obtain some updated data from EPA staff To order the Report call 1 800 490 9198 Order EPA530SW88011A 9 3 99 U S Federal Definitions of Waste Types click here EPA S FRANKLIN ASSOCIATES vs BIOCYCLE In addition the methodology the EPA uses to gather national waste generation

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  • WasteTrade
    waste import data is not reported TOTALS OF STATE WASTE IMPORTS EXPORTS Year Waste Imports tons minus Exports Foreign Waste 1997 21 319 000 13 977 000 7 342 000 1998 32 837 370 14 899 090 17 938 280 1999 38 901 100 16 090 000 22 811 100 Totals 93 057 470 44 966 090 48 091 380 The annual total imported waste by states minus the total exported waste by states appears to be the amount of imported foreign municipal waste This does not include other types of foreign waste imports Data source BIOCYCLE April 1998 1999 2000 Table ZWA Only Congressman Paul E Gillmor R from Ohio has offered legislation to stop foreign waste imports The following proposed legislation addresses the issue of foreign waste imports but not waste exports See LEGISLATION HR 379 IH search THOMAS for legislation 106th CONGRESS 1st Session H R 379 To permit States to prohibit the disposal of solid waste imported from other nations IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES January 19 1999 Mr GILLMOR introduced the following bill which was referred to the Committee on Commerce UNITED STATES 8 18 2000 TOXIC WASTE FROM MEXICO ON THE RISE source SolidWaste com Toxic waste produced in Mexico by assembly plants along the border maquiladoras and shipped to the United States for disposal has increased 300 in the past two years said environmental protection officials from both nations in a meeting in El Paso TXon Thursday Pressure Builds to Export U S Nuclear Waste 1996 U S Waste Statistics VIDEO Michael Thomas Productions The Ash Barge Odyssey Year 2000 The remaining 3000 tons of Philadelphia s incinerated ash which was removed from a beach in Gonaives Haiti where it was dumped 10 years ago is now holed up in a hopper barge

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  • EconomicsOfWaste
    disposal creates recycling creates 5 10 jobs See GRRN CORPORATE WELFARE LINKS REPORT 4 8 99 END WELFARE FOR WASTE How Federal Taxpayer Subsidies Waste Resources and Discourage Recycling is a groundbreaking report that identifies 15 tax and spending subsidies pouring 13 billion over 5 years into industries that compete directly with recycling The report is a joint project of Taxpayers for Common Sense the GrassRoots Recycling Network the Materials Efficiency Project and Friends of the Earth Corporate Welfare Time Magazine SPECIAL REPORT NOVEMBER 9 1998 VOL 152 NO 19 Plus corporate welfare links and information ENVIRO ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS GrassRoots Recycling Network Mobilization for Global Justice National Recycling Coalition Center for a Sustainable Economy Institute of Local Self Reliance Container Recycling Institute SEARCH Rachel s for economics and See 465 10 26 95 Sustainable America Pt 2 Economic Development Southern Studies an essential resource for grassroots activists community leaders scholars policy makers and all individuals and organizations working to bring lasting social and economic change to the region Check out ZWA s Sustainable ZWA s Sustainable Development page Money and Environmental Politics GOOD MONEY Social Ethical and Environmental Investments Common Cause Campaign Contributions and Global Warming GOVERNMENT For information on the World Trade Organization WTO EPA s Economy and Environment website ARTICLES E MAILS The Natural Wealth of Nations Harnessing the Market for Environment ENN Sept 21 1998 proposes that ending 650 billion in subsidies for activities like clearcutting and overfishing and levying taxes on resource depletion and pollutants like greenhouse gases could provide 1 5 trillion a year for income tax cuts Under this proposal a U S family of four would get a net tax cut of 2 000 according to Worldwatch ENN Purchases of recycled paper plastics wane Sept 18 1998 MINING BIRTHDAY Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt

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  • LANDFILLS
    have included discussion of the diabetes paper as well as an earlier paper on birth defects If you or others in your group have questions or comments please contact me Lee G F and Jones Lee A Association between Hazardous Chemical Sites and Illness Report of G Fred Lee Associates El Macero CA January 2007 http www members aol com annejlee HazChemSites Illness pdf ALSO Flawed Technology of Subtitle D Landfilling of Municipal Solid Waste Report of G Fred Lee Associates El Macero CA December 2004 Updated January 2007 http www members aol com apple27298 SubtitleDFlawedTechnPap pdf This report is a synthesis of about 23 years of work on dry tomb landfills G Fred Lee PhD DEE AAEE Bd Cert Env Eng also expert on construction and demolition debris G Fred Lee Associates 27298 E El Macero Dr El Macero CA 95618 1005 Ph 530 753 9630 Cell 916 712 7399 or 530 400 4952 Fx 530 753 9956 Turned on upon request gfredlee aol com www gfredlee com Dr Paul Ellen Connett Ph D Chemistry world renown founders of Work On Waste http www americanhealthstudies org wastenot 83 Judson Street Canton New York 13617 FYI The Connets are now concentrating on the fluoride http www fluoridealert org Contact michael fluoridealert org or 802 338 5577 www Rachel org An excellent site Search for landfill liners landfills etc THE BASICS OF LANDFILLS plus LANDFILL DIAGRAM Rachel s 37 08 10 87 EPA Says All Landfills Leak Rachel s 217 01 23 91 Why Plastic Landfill Liners Always Fail Check out 117 The Best Landfill Liner HDPE lists chemicals that attack liners Dennis E Williams Ph D founder and president of GEOSCIENCE Support Services Inc 1326 Monte Vista Avenue Suite 3 P O Box 220 Claremont CA 91711 909 920 0707 formed in 1978 to provide consulting to the ground water industry Dr Williams has over 30 years of experience in ground water consulting specializing in ground water planning development and management with specific emphasis on the ground water basins of Southern California LANDFILLS THAT LEAK International Geosynthetics Society Other Geotechnical Sites RESEARCH PAPERS DETAILS SEE THE BASICS OF LANDFILLS plus LANDFILL DIAGRAM New WET Landfills BIOREACTORS cause concerns National Recycling Council By Notice dated April 6 2000 65 Fed Reg 18014 the U S Environmental Protection Agency EPA requested comments and information concerning the design and performance of so called bioreactor landfills We are writing in response to this request on behalf of our client the National Recycling Coalition Inc the Coalition CARTER LEDYARD MILBURN Government pro bioreactor info Environmental Protection Agency EPA National Institute of Health NIH Health Effects of Landfills Rachel s 371 01 06 94 Superfund Dumps Health Rachel s 226 03 27 91 Toxic Gases Emitted From Landfills Rachel s 90 08 15 88 MSW Leachate As Toxic As Hazardous Waste Rachel s 69 03 21 88 Landfilling Low Level Radioactive Waste LEAKAGE info Landfills That Leak by Dennis E Williams Ph D founder and president

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  • INCINERATORS
    in Gonaives Haiti where it was dumped 10 years ago is now holed up in a hopper barge in the St Lucie Canal in Stuart Florida A 14 year saga still remains unresolved for the people of Haiti the residents of Florida and the city of Philadelphia http www michaelthomasprod com fla html CEMENT KILNS American Lung Association An introduction to policy and legal issues associated with burning hazardous waste in cement kilns 9 4 99 The Sierra Club has filed a lawsuit aimed at cutting the amount of harmful chemicals spewed into the air by the 110 cement kilns operating in the U S The suit against the U S Environmental Protection Agency says although cement kilns are among America s worst polluters the federal government has done little to control the pollution they discharge Sierra Club has asked a federal appeals court to force the EPA to place stricter limits on the kilns emissions Current EPA standards allow the kilns to continue emitting tons of toxic pollutants and do not reduce mercury and dioxin emissions Rachel s 242 07 17 91 Cement Kilns Burn Hazardous Waste Rachel s 174 03 28 90 Hazardous Waste Incineration In Cement Kilns Cement Kilns in Pennsylvania MEDICAL WASTE INCINERATORS Resource Information links Environmental Working Group Health Care Without Harm U S Senator Leahy Presses EPA on Medical Waste Incineration Safety Alternatives to medical waste incinerators http www nhlink net enviro scp medical html Waste Reduction and Recycling Hospitals can reduce the need to burn medical waste by reducing the amount of waste they produce Much of the waste burned in medical waste incinerators can be recycled and remade into new items instead Recycling keeps these items from being burned reducing air pollution and saving natural resources at the same time Hospitals can take other steps to reduce the amount of trash they produce Reducing the amount of trash produced by hospitals will reduce the amount of trash that needs to be burned Autoclaving While Federal law requires that certain types of infectious hospital waste be incinerated body parts and lab cultures for example not all medical waste needs to be burned Using superheated pressurized steam hospitals can sterilize some medical waste Using Nontoxic Equipment Alternatives Alternatives to many commonly used medical items containing dioxin and mercury do exist For example hospitals can use thermometers that contain no mercury and non PVC plastic items that contain no dioxin or chlorine Using these alternatives will reduce much of the toxic materials from incinerator emissions Contact Health Care Without Harm at 703 237 8389 for information on alternatives to waste incineration TIRE INCINERATION SEE ZWA s Tire Info Organizations Global Alliance for Incinerator Alternatives No Incinerator Allianc e Ireland GOV T Information EPA EPA s Office of Solid Waste EPA s Solid Waste Topics EPA Combustion Information Charts Solid Waste Incineration Rules Includes Municipal Medical Incineration EPA Hazardous Waste Combustion EPA s Human Health Risk Assessment Protocol for Hazardous Waste Combustion Facilities Search EPA News

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  • WASTES & TOXICS
    Network DDT Rachel s 279 April 1 1992 EPA webpage for DDT OR type in DDT to this EPA pesticide search webpage DDT and other chemicals in the waters off the Los Angeles Calif coast that were left by decades of dumping may not be decaying as scientists had thought New evidence shows that it may simply be spreading The findings appear in the February issue of the journal Environmental Science and Technology The research was funded by the University of Southern California Sea Grant program a partnership between USC and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ENN 2 5 99 Jan 27 A World Wildlife Fund report finds sufficient scientific evidence of hazards to human health and wildlife to justify a global ban on the production and use of DDT Although banned decades ago in North America because of its links to wildlife declines such as the near extinction of the bald eagle and possible risk to human health DDT is still used to control mosquitoes and other disease carrying insects in many developing nations Dioxin Greenpeace Achieving Zero Dioxin Citizen s Clearinghouse for Hazardous Wastes The American People s Dioxin Report Rachel s 592 4 2 98 Incineration News Rachel s 390 05 19 94 Dioxin Reassessed Part 1 Rachel s 391 05 26 94 Dioxin Reassessed Part 2 Dredge Contaminated Sediments PCB Contamination Of The Hudson Is Dredging an Appropriate Cleanup Strategy USGS Fact Sheet Seafloor Studies of Mamala Bay Honolulu Hawaii Disposal of contaminated dredge spoils is a continuing issue in Chesapeake Bay Preliminary Geochemical Studies of Pollutant and Natural Organic Compounds in Sediments from Sonoma Baylands See ZWA s Remediation page Electronics Waste http earth911 com recycling electronics electronics 101 article http www sciencedaily com releases 2010 02 100222081911 htm article http www pcworld com businesscenter article 151192 audit us exporting harmful ewaste to other countries html repair it http www repairlaunch com Fertilizers Sep 9 1999 Are Fertilizers Dangerous Reality Times Environmental Working Group Washington Toxics Coalition Pennsylvania Consumer Action Network Land Application of Sewage Sludge Fly Ash Added To Building Materials Fertilizer Phospho Gypsum a problem waste of the fertilizer industry becomes a problem in building materials exposure to cadmium and radioactivity ZWA s Perchlorate webpage check fertilizer news stories EPA Fertilizers Environmental Fact Sheets Waste Derived Fertilizers December 1997 http www epa gov epaoswer hazwaste recycle fertiliz txt http www epa gov epaoswer hazwaste recycle metafert txt Fiberglass Rachel s 74 04 25 88 Asbestos and Fiberglass Hazards from Landfills Rachel s 444 06 01 95 Fiber Glass A Carcinogen That is Everywhere Fiberglass Information Network Fluoride See ZWA s FLUORIDE Page Food Issues See ZWA s Organic page Incinerator ash Note Incinerator ash is often allowed to be used in road and building construction Supreme Court Rules for EDF in Incinerator Ash Case EDF Criticizes EPA for Allowing Testing of Combined Ash from Municipal Waste Incinerators Search Rachel s Website for incinerator ash Lead Links articles and information Malathion Gary Null

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