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  • Refuse News Illegal Dumping
    rural and urban roadside litter and illegal dumping of common household wastes remains a local issue Arguably America s illegal dumping problem is getting worse Also worthy of debate is whether or not other pieces of federal legislation such as RCRA Subtitle D have exacerbated the illegal dumping problem Local governments are coping the best they can The City of Fort Worth Texas for example reports that since 1993 more than 300 000 cubic yards of debris and 250 000 tires have been removed from roadsides and illegal dump sites throughout the city The city currently spends approximately 1 million annually to combat illegal dumping Counties in north central Texas have developed a Top Ten Most Least Wanted list of illegal dumpsites in each county in the region Developed as a public outreach tool the top ten list project hopes to raise public awareness on illegal dumping issues by putting the general addresses of properties where illegal dumping is a problem The hope is that citizens will feel the impact that illegal dumping has on their lives when they see how close illegal dumping may be to their own homes California has a rigorous set of illegal dumping laws on the books but the problem is with enforcement Illegal solid waste disposal sites have grown in numbers according to the California Integrated Waste Management Board The Board has issued several Local Enforcement Advisory notices to local governments telling them what to look for and listing the criteria for an illegal disposal site which can include any of the following The presence of large volumes of waste Evidence of buried waste The presence of excavations for waste disposal Evidence of periodic and or current burning of waste and or The presence of equipment or personnel on site Hawaii passed a strict

    Original URL path: http://zerowasteamerica.org/RefuseNewsIllegalDumping.htm (2016-04-25)
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  • LANDFILL LIABILITY
    large and small waste hauling companies throughout the nation according to an attorney involved in the case In U S v Keystone Sanitation Company U S District Judge Sylvia Rambo ruled that Waste Management was liable as a successor for cleanup costs in a Pennsylvania landfill site Waste Management maintained that it only purchased assets trucks and customer lists from Keystone Sanitation and had specifically excluded landfill real estate in its 1991 transaction The deal Waste Management structured with Keystone was typical of many such transaction it had entered into during the late 1980s and early 1990s as it increased its municipal waste business by acquiring hundreds of trash haulers across the country In return for 3 1 million worth of its stock Waste Management acquired Keystone s dumpsters fleet of vehicles and some 16 000 customers At the time Waste Management was aware that Keystone faced potential liability for its landfill operation and specifically structured the deal to assure any Superfund liability would stay behind In 1993 EPA sued Keystone and eight other generator companies who used the landfill In turn the eight generator defendants sued Waste Management claiming it was a successor to Keystone and liable as well

    Original URL path: http://zerowasteamerica.org/LandfillLiability.htm (2016-04-25)
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  • Landfills&Wetlands
    the Supreme Court the environmental community has lost a major handle on solid waste landfills in wetlands BACKGROUND Resource Investments Inc RII applied for a Section 404 permit on 8 August 1990 for the discharge of fill material into waters of the U S including wetlands The private solid waste landfill was proposed on a 320 acre site in central Pierce County WA It would directly impact 21 6 acres of wetlands To the Corps credit on 30 September 1996 the Seattle District Corps of Engineers issued a Record of Decision ROD denying with prejudice the permit application one of only a handful of such wetland fill denials issued by the Seattle District Corps in decades The denial was based primarily around the availability of alternatives and impacts to groundwater from the project On 16 September 1997 Federal District Judge Robert Bryan US District Court W Dist of WA at Tacoma issued a lengthy and extraordinary oral ruling upholding the Corps permit denial Docket No C96 5920RJB Was the decision to deny the permit the result of bias and prejudgment It is easy to see why an applicant for a Clean Water permit that affects wetlands might feel that the deck is stacked against them from the beginning And that s for a very simple reason The deck IS stacked against them from the beginning But it s the law that stacks the deck against them and not the Corps of Engineers p 13 It is true that the Corps has a bias if you will in looking at such permit applications but it is not an unfair bias it is the bias of the law that starts out with discouragement of such permit applications p 14 Did the Corps decision to deny the permit violate the National Environmental Policy Act No The Corps can terminate completion of an EIS once the Corps has determined there is enough evidence to issue a denial p 15 Referring to a separate Summary Judgment Order C 96 5920RJB 20 Jan 1997 Must the Corps blindly adhere to state and local land use approvals for the project The Corps cannot be required and is not required to defer to state and local administrative decisions in carrying out its responsibilities under the Clean Water Act p 16 Land use or zoning matters do not necessarily include environmental impacts such as wetland impacts p 17 Was the Corps denial based on community opposition there s no indication in the record that leads to the conclusion that the Corps based its decision on opposition The Corps was not arbitrary or capricious in that regard p 18 Was the District Corps required to elevate the permit decision to the division The Corps decision did not require further submission to the division engineer The regulations are like most federal regulations they are not particularly well organized or drafted You have to look all over the map in order to find what the law is And it is not an

    Original URL path: http://zerowasteamerica.org/Landfills&Wetlands.htm (2016-04-25)
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  • PowerPlantFlyAsh
    it into landfills Two companies Caraustar Industries and Babb Cellular Concrete use the sulfur and fly ash to make construction products such as wallboard and concrete Farmers are also buying the residue called scrubber sludge because it helps increase crop yields Wherever you put that stuff said Ken Curtis owner of a fertilizer business in Illinois it just greens up In the past power companies usually buried the sludge in landfills incurring liabilities Now the Tennessee Valley Authority makes from 6 to 10 million annually on sales of the byproduct We re turning a deficit into a positive number said Cheri Miller a TVA marketing specialist Ralph Woodward a farmer from Carlisle Indiana has a farm by a power plant Woodward thought that the scrubbing process mandated by the Clean Air Act would result in a sulfurous sludge that would probably improve the soil He asked the officials at the plant if he could have some because they were just dumping it They just ignored me said Woodward He then donated 50 000 to Purdue University to test his theory He persuaded soil scientist Darrell Norton to test his theory If this old dumb farmer makes a claim that sludge works they don t pay much attention to you Woodward says But if Purdue does it that it authentic Dr Norton found that the sludge could increase crop yields and reduce water pollution runoff by increasing the soil s capacity to hold rainwater The use of the sludge on some farmland has been approved by federal and some state environmental agencies It has been slow to sell however It s an education process Farmers have never heard of it The construction industry also was looking at ways to use the sludge containing calcium sulfate The mineral also known as gypsum

    Original URL path: http://zerowasteamerica.org/PowerPlantFlyAsh.htm (2016-04-25)
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  • Cement Kilns
    not allow Keystone Cement to use hazardous waste as a fuel supplement until the company can make numerous operational improvements throughout its East Allen Township Northampton County facility The improvements are identified in a recently completed report on the department s investigation of the December 1997 incident at Keystone Cement in which nearby schools and homes were evacuated when temperatures rose in one of the company s hazardous waste storage tanks The fire and internal tank explosion that occurred in one of the company s hazardous waste storage tanks were the results of a series of equipment problems inadequate waste handling practices and operator errors that began on or around Nov 26 1997 McDonnell said DEP will require Keystone Cement to institutionalize improvements throughout its facility prior to considering any resumption of the use of hazardous waste solvents as a fuel supplement The company will need to document to DEP that it has made the improvements and that it is able to operate safely A community meeting will be held to discuss the incident at 7 30 p m April 8 in the auditorium of Northampton High School The incident report and a comment response document from a meeting sponsored by the George Wolfe Elementary School PTA in January are being distributed for public review prior to the meeting Keystone s application for expansion of the burn rates will not be reviewed until the company can document safe operation McDonnell said DEP assembled a multi disciplinary team to investigate the incident and to review the company s report of the causes The investigation which was conducted in conjunction with a science and engineering contractor hired by EPA revealed that Keystone Cement had accepted several loads of hazardous waste that were not suitable improperly blended additional solvents with these shipments in

    Original URL path: http://zerowasteamerica.org/CementKilns.htm (2016-04-25)
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  • SOOTPRINTS
    CONSUMERS BUSINESS Avoid Substitute Waste RecyNews Recycling Composting WaterTreatment Health Issues SOOTPRINTS The following is an article that appeared in Earthtimes 8 31 96 9 14 96 Reprinted by Zero Waste America Scientists can pinpoint where certain particles of air pollution come from Three scientists at a U S university have developed a technique that can pinpoint precisely where certain particles of air pollution come from The Massachusetts Institute of Technology professors can track the source of soot a process that would permit regulators to accurately track offending polluters An electron microscope is employed to reveal exactly how the carbon atoms are arranged in a particular sample of soot the resulting sootprint reveals the particular combustion process that produced the soot One of the scientists told the worldwatch Institute that the technique can easily distinguish broad categories of combustion s sources diesel engines gas turbines and others as well as compute how much a particular factory is producing Transportation officials in Massachusetts are considering a pilot program to determine to what degree airplanes contribute to Boston s pollution clean up efforts have lagged because regulators have been unable to point fingers at who is to blame and to what extent

    Original URL path: http://zerowasteamerica.org/Sootprints.htm (2016-04-25)
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  • CHLORINE
    treatment facilities that use alternative disinfectant processes to chlorination may be exempt from the 0 02 mg l chlorine minimum On the adverse health effects of chlorinated water the EPA says studies show an association between bladder and rectal cancer and chlorination byproducts in drinking water Reports from the older literature stated that chronic exposure to concentrations of chlorine of around 5 ppm ppm mg l caused respiratory complaints corrosion of the teeth inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose and increased susceptibility to tuberculosis There is a disturbing lack of comprehensive test data on the health effects of chlorine The EPA says that Limited information is available on the chronic effects of chlorine in humans And no information is available on the developmental or reproductive effects of chlorine in humans or animals via inhalation exposure or on the carcinogenic effects of chlorine in humans from inhalation exposure Chlorine is inhaled during activities such as baths showers washing dishes laundry and watering lawns Peter Montegue of the Environmental Research Foundation reported in May 1998 that recent studies by researchers including the California Department of Health and the U S Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry indicate that miscarriages and birth defects including spina bifida may be caused by adding chlorine to drinking water Many European cities and some Canadian cities have abandoned chlorination in favor of ozone technology to disinfect water According to The American Water Works Association AWWA ozone is being used or considered for use at drinking water facilities because it is a powerful oxidant that disinfects without increasing the disinfection by products that chlorine produces CHLORINE REPORTS AND INFORMATION NOTE Reports sometimes use different measurements for the same value example milligrams per liter mg l ppm parts per million This can be very confusing for

    Original URL path: http://zerowasteamerica.org/Chlorine.htm (2016-04-25)
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  • ComputerPlants
    their ailments on exposure to toxic chemicals We all got a cocktail of gases acids and chemicals says Grace Morrison a National Semiconductor employee with uterine cancer Semiconductor manufacturers have often touted their industry as clean no visible pollution and no health risks This is an environment that is cleaner than an operating room at a hospital says Lee Neal head of safety health and environmental affairs for the Semiconductor Industry Association The clean safe and sterile image is being challenged however A growing amount of evidence indicates that working in chip plants especially older ones can be hazardous Interviews have revealed stories of employees stumbling off production lines bleeding from the nose vomiting in emergency showers and passing out after chemical leaks Many of these incidents occurred years ago Health authorities have not concluded that there are definitive links between chip making and cancer or birth defects The industry has opposed epidemiological studies of cancer rates in workers claiming the studies aren t warranted Some health experts are convinced otherwise We ve been warning for years you can t use these chemicals in a cavalier manner says Bruce Fowler director of the University of Maryland s toxicology program The blotches are starting to show National Conductor claims its plants are safe We have never exposed our employees to chemicals above legal limits said Edward Sweeney vice president of human resources We have seen no pattern of abnormalities at that plant The EPA agreed to spend 100 000 on the first large scale study of birth defect rates among chip workers focusing on the Silicon Valley Chip companies refused to cooperate however Timothy Mohin director of environmental affairs for Intel Corp told a meeting of government industry and environmental officials that providing personnel records for the study would be like

    Original URL path: http://zerowasteamerica.org/ComputerPlants.htm (2016-04-25)
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